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  • Writer's pictureKiki Maree

W is for Womb

The Wondrous Womb: Anatomy, Functions, and Intriguing Facts Every Female Should Know


As one of the most important and vital organs in the female body, the womb is nothing short of remarkable. Playing a central role in reproduction, it is the nurturing home for a developing foetus and is responsible for the miracle of childbirth. However, there's so much more to the womb than reproduction!

In this blog post, we will delve into its anatomy, functions, and some lesser-known facts about this incredible organ. We will also discuss some of the common problems that can affect the womb. So, buckle up, and let's explore the wonders of the womb!

Anatomy and Functions of the Womb

The body of the womb:

  1. Fundus: The rounded upper portion of the uterus.

  2. Body: The main portion of the uterus between the fundus and the cervix.

  3. Cervix: The narrow lower portion of the uterus that opens into the vagina.

  4. Endometrium: The inner lining of the uterus that thickens and sheds during the menstrual cycle.

  5. Myometrium: The muscular middle layer of the uterus that contracts during labor and delivery.

  6. Perimetrium: The outer layer of the uterus that covers the surface of the organ.

  7. Uterine tubes (aka fallopian tubes): The tubes that extend from the uterus and connect to the ovaries, allowing eggs to travel from the ovaries to the uterus.

  8. Fimbriae: finger-like projections at the end of the uterine tubes.

Ligaments of the womb:

The uterus is held in place by several ligaments that provide support and stability to the organ. These ligaments include:

  1. Broad ligament: A sheet-like fold of peritoneum that extends from the sides of the uterus to the walls of the pelvis.

  2. Round ligaments: A pair of cord-like structures that extend from the sides of the uterus and attach to the labia majora.

  3. Cardinal ligaments: A pair of thick, fibrous bands that attach to the sides of the cervix and provide support to the uterus.

  4. Uterosacral ligaments: A pair of fibrous bands that attach the cervix to the sacrum, providing stability to the uterus.

  5. Pubocervical ligaments: A pair of ligaments that attach the cervix to the pubic bone, providing support to the uterus.

These ligaments work together to keep the uterus in its proper position within the pelvic cavity, preventing prolapse and other complications.

The womb & hormones:

The womb is a hormone-responsive organ in female anatomy. A hormone-responsive organ is an organ in the body that can be influenced by changes in hormone levels. These organs contain specialized cells that are capable of responding to specific hormones in the bloodstream. When a hormone binds to its corresponding receptor on these cells, it triggers a series of biological processes that can affect the function of the organ.

In the case of the womb, it is a hormone-responsive organ because it contains cells that are sensitive to hormones such as estrogen, progesterone, oxytocin, and relaxin. These hormones play a critical role in regulating the menstrual cycle, preparing the uterus for pregnancy, maintaining a healthy pregnancy, and triggering contractions during childbirth. Any disruptions in the normal hormonal balance of the uterus can affect its function and lead to a range of reproductive health problems.

Other examples of hormone-responsive organs in the body include the ovaries, breasts, prostate gland, and thyroid gland, among others. These organs contain cells that are sensitive to specific hormones and can be affected by changes in their levels.

Hormones play a vital role in regulating the functions of the uterus, particularly during the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and childbirth. The main hormonal functions of the womb include:

  1. Estrogen: Estrogen is produced by the ovaries and plays a key role in the development and maintenance of the endometrial lining of the uterus. It also helps to stimulate contractions of the uterine muscles during labor.

  2. Progesterone: Progesterone is another hormone produced by the ovaries, which works in conjunction with estrogen to regulate the menstrual cycle and promote the growth and thickening of the endometrial lining. During pregnancy, progesterone levels rise to help maintain the pregnancy and prevent contractions of the uterine muscles.

  3. Oxytocin: Oxytocin is a hormone produced by the pituitary gland, which plays a key role in triggering uterine contractions during labor and delivery. It also helps to promote bonding between mother and infant after birth.

  4. Relaxin: Relaxin is a hormone produced by the ovaries and placenta during pregnancy, which helps to relax the uterine muscles and soften the cervix, allowing for easier delivery.

These hormones work together to regulate the various functions of the uterus, including menstruation, ovulation, implantation, pregnancy, and childbirth. Imbalances in these hormones can lead to a range of reproductive health problems, such as irregular periods, infertility, and complications during pregnancy and childbirth.

Arteries & veins of the womb:

The uterus, or womb, receives its blood supply from several arteries and veins. There are two main arteries that supply blood to the uterus, and these are the uterine arteries. Each uterine artery arises from the internal iliac artery and runs alongside the uterus to supply blood to the organ.

In addition to the uterine arteries, there are several smaller arteries that supply blood to the uterus, including the ovarian arteries, which arise from the aorta and supply blood to the ovaries and the fallopian tubes.

As for veins, there are several that drain blood from the uterus. The uterine veins run alongside the uterine arteries and drain blood from the uterus. These veins eventually merge with the ovarian veins to form the common iliac veins, which carry blood back to the heart.

The womb in menarche

The growth of the womb and ovaries during menarche, which is the onset of menstruation in adolescent girls, can vary from person to person. However, in general, the uterus and ovaries do undergo some degree of growth and development during this time.

The uterus typically grows from a small, pear-shaped organ to a larger, more mature shape during puberty. This growth is due to the hormonal changes that occur during this time, specifically the increased production of estrogen and progesterone. The uterus can increase in size from approximately 3.5 cm to 7.5 cm in length and from 2.5 cm to 5.5 cm in width, although these measurements can vary based on age, genetics, and other factors.

Similarly, the ovaries also undergo growth and development during puberty. As the levels of estrogen and progesterone increase, the ovaries can increase in size from approximately 1.5 cm to 3.5 cm in length and from 1 cm to 2 cm in width. The ovaries also become more active, producing and releasing eggs as part of the menstrual cycle.

The womb in menopause

Menopause is a natural biological process that marks the end of a vulva-haver's reproductive years. During menopause, the ovaries gradually produce less estrogen and progesterone, which can have a significant impact on the uterus, or womb.

One of the most notable changes that occur in the womb during menopause is the thinning of the endometrial lining. With lower levels of estrogen, the lining of the uterus may become thinner and less likely to develop into a thick, supportive environment for a fertilized egg to implant. This can lead to a decrease in menstrual flow, and eventually, the cessation of menstruation altogether.

Another change that can occur in the uterus during menopause is a decrease in the size of the organ. Without the hormonal stimulation of estrogen and progesterone, the uterus may shrink in size, becoming smaller and less elastic. This can lead to discomfort or pain during sexual activity, as well as a higher risk of uterine prolapse or other pelvic floor disorders.

20 Rarely Known Facts About the Womb

  1. The womb can expand up to 500 times its normal size during pregnancy to accommodate the growing fetus.

  2. In a non-pregnant female, the womb is roughly the size of a small pear or an upside-down clenched fist.

  3. After childbirth, the womb gradually contracts back to its original size in a process called involution.

  4. The word "hysteria" derives from the Greek word "hystera," meaning womb, as it was once believed that female emotional disturbances were caused by a wandering womb.

  5. The womb can change position within the pelvis, and approximately 20-30% of females have a tilted or retroverted uterus.

  6. In rare cases, some females are born with two wombs, a condition known as uterus didelphys.

  7. The myometrium, the muscular layer of the womb, is one of the strongest muscles in the female body.

  8. The womb can detect the presence of a fertilized egg within hours of conception.

  9. During menstruation, the womb expels between 30 to 40 milliliters of blood on average.

  10. Females with a condition called MRKH syndrome are born without a womb, and in some cases, without a vagina or cervix.

  11. The womb plays a vital role in sexual pleasure for some females, as it contracts rhythmically during orgasm.

  12. In ancient Egyptian culture, the womb was thought to have the power of creation and was considered a sacred symbol.

  13. The womb has its own immune system, which is essential for a healthy pregnancy.

  14. Womb transplants have been performed successfully, offering hope to females with uterine factor infertility.

  15. In rare cases, the womb can develop cancer, most commonly in the form of endometrial cancer.

  16. Some studies suggest that the womb can "remember" previous pregnancies, which may influence the outcomes of subsequent pregnancies.

  17. The womb can sense when a pregnancy is not viable and may initiate a miscarriage to protect the female's health.

  18. C-section scars on the womb can sometimes lead to a condition called placenta accreta, where the placenta grows too deeply into the uterine wall.

  19. During pregnancy, the womb can hold up to five liters (1.3 gallons) of amniotic fluid, which protects and nourishes the developing baby.

  20. The cervix produces cervical mucus that changes in consistency during the menstrual cycle, helping to facilitate or prevent sperm passage.

  21. If a female has a retroverted womb, she may experience back pain or pain during sexual intercourse.

  22. The womb's position can influence the direction of a baby's head during childbirth, potentially affecting labor and delivery.

  23. After menopause, the womb can decrease

As you can see, the womb is far more than an aspect of pregnancy and childbirth. Below is a summary of the reasons why all people with a womb should understand their womb anatomy and health, regardless of their plans for children, or lack thereof.

  1. Menstruation: The womb plays a crucial role in menstruation, as it is the organ where the endometrial lining thickens and sheds during the menstrual cycle.

  2. Hormonal regulation: The womb is an important hormone-responsive organ that is affected by changes in hormone levels. It plays a role in the production of hormones such as estrogen, progesterone, and oxytocin, which can affect mood, energy levels, and overall well-being.

  3. Sexual health: The womb is an important part of a vulva-haver's sexual anatomy, as it plays a role in sexual arousal and orgasm.

  4. Pelvic health: The position and size of the womb can impact a vulva-haver's pelvic health, including the risk of pelvic organ prolapse and other pelvic floor disorders.

  5. Gynecological health: The womb is an organ that can be affected by a range of gynecological health issues, such as fibroids, polyps, and endometriosis. Understanding the signs and symptoms of these conditions can help women manage their reproductive health and maintain their well-being.

  6. Menopausal transition: As women age, the functions of the womb change and eventually cease during menopause. The changes that occur during this time can affect a vulva-haver's overall health and well-being, and understanding the symptoms and available treatments can help women manage this transition.

  7. Overall health: The womb is an essential organ that is connected to other systems in the body, such as the endocrine and immune systems. Understanding the role of the womb in overall health and well-being can help women make informed decisions about their health and lifestyle choices.

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